Writers Workshop: Writer Resources
American Psychological Association (APA): In-Text Citation
The basic format for APA in-text citation is as follows:
(Author's last name, year of publication)
- e.g., One recent study finds a genetic link to alcoholism (Jones, 1997).
If the author’s last name appears in the citation, then only the year is required:
- e.g., Jones (1997) finds a genetic link to alcoholism.
When a work has only two authors, use both of their names each time their work is cited, joined by an ampersand (&) if in parentheses, or by the word "and" if in text:
- In parentheses: (Cortez & Jones, 1997)
- In text: Cortez and Jones (1997)
For three, four, or five authors, refer to all authors in the first citation, then use the first author’s last name followed by the abbreviation "et al." (not italicized and with a period after "al") in all subsequent citations:
- First citation: (Cortez, Jones, Gold, & Hammond, 1998)
- Subsequent citations: (Cortez et al., 1998)
For six or more authors, use the first author's last name followed by the abbreviation et al.:
- In all citations: (Burke et al., 1999)
Different Authors with the Same Last Name
When citing different authors with the same last name, include their first and middle initials, so that a reader can differentiate between them:
- B. A. Jones (1998) and R. F. Jones (1998) also found
More Than One Work by the Same Author
If you are citing more than one work by the same author, include enough information so that your reader can differentiate between them. For instance, if you have used two studies by the same authors (from different years), you simply need to include their dates of publication:
- (Jones, Crick, & Waxson, 1989); (Jones, Crick, & Waxson, 1998)
or, if you are citing both at once:
- (Jones, Crick, & Waxson, 1989, 1998)
If you are citing more than one work from the same year, use the suffixes "a," "b," "c" etc., so that your reader can differentiate between them (these suffixes will correspond to the order of entries in your references page):
- (Jones, Crick, & Waxson, 1999a); (Jones, Crick, & Waxson, 1999b)
Multiple Authors Cited Together
Order the authors in alphabetical order by last name. Semicolons are used to differentiate between the entries:
- (Heckels, 1996; Jones, 1998; Stolotsky, 1992)
When identifying group authors, use the same format as noted for single authors above, but substitute the company name.
If the name is easy to abbreviate, then write out the full name in the first citation, and abbreviate it in all subsequent citations. If it is difficult to abbreviate, write out the full name each time:
- First citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999)
- Subsequent citation: (NIMH, 1999)
No Author Available
If no author is available, use a short form of the title (the shortest form that will allow you to recognize the work properly). For instance, if you are working with a study called "The Effects of Aspirin on Heart Attack Victims" you might use the following:
If you were working with an entire book called Aspirin and Heart Attacks, and the book had no author, you might cite the source as follows:
If the text is attributed to "Anonymous," then use the following format:
To cite a direct quote, include the name(s) of the author(s), the date of publication, and the page number:
- (Asaki & Klotzky, 1987, p. 333)
- Asaki & Klotzky (1987) found that "the addition of the compound problematized the results" (p. 333).
Personal communications receive a slightly more elaborate in-text citation, since they are not cited in the references section of an APA-style document:
- (H. J. Simpson, personal communication, September 29, 1999)
For more specific information, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Fifth Edition) or see the APA style website.
Sometimes an author of a book, article or website will mention another person’s work by using a quotation or paraphrased idea from that source. (This may be called a secondary source.) For example, the Kirkey article you are reading includes a quotation by Smith that you would like to include in your essay.
The basic rule is that in both your References list and in-text citation you will still cite Kirkey. Kirkey will appear in your References list – not Smith. You will add the words “as cited in” to your in-text citation.
Examples of in-text citations:
According to a study by Smith (as cited in Kirkey, 2013) 42% of doctors would refuse to perform legal euthanasia. Smith (as cited in Kirkey, 2013) states that “even if euthanasia was legal, 42% of doctors would be against this method of assisted dying” (p. 34).
Example of Reference list citation:
Kirkey, S. (2013, Feb 9). Euthanasia. The Montreal Gazette, p A10. Retrieved from Canadian Major Dailies.