Answers to coursebook questions Chapter 1
© Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2005. This page from the
Science Focus 3 Teacher’s Resource
may be photocopied for classroom use.
Unit 1.2 Arranging the elements
German chemist Johann Dobereiner, English chemist John Newlands, Russian chemist Mendeleev, German chemist Lother Meyer, English physicist Henry Moseley.
Various answers, e.g. Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of atomic number.
Mendeleev left gaps to keep the families of elements known at the time in vertical columns or groups.
False. Horizontal rows in the periodic table are ‘periods’.
False. Vertical columns are called ‘groups’.
False. The most reactive metallic atom would be Francium, Fr.
Cl: chlorine (non-metal); Na: sodium (metal); Ar: argon (non-metal); Si: silicon (semi-metal); Cu: copper (metal); Ge: germanium (semi-metal)
Semi-metals: boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, astatine
Non-metals: H, He, C, N, O, F, Ne, P, S, Cl, Ar, Se, Br, Kr, I, Xe, Rn
Common transition elements could be iron, gold, copper, silver, zinc.
Most metals are in Groups I, II, III and some in IV. One (Bi) is in Group V. Non-metals are in Groups IV, V, VI, VII and VIII.
Five physical properties: hardness, colour, shine, boiling point, melting point
Group VI: oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, polonium
Period 3: sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, chlorine, argon
Same ‘family’: any set of elements from the same column or group
Similar chemical properties: any set of elements from the same column or group
Noble gases: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon
Cuprum: Cu, copper
Aurum: Au, gold
Plumbum: Pb, lead
Wolfram: W, tungsten
Bromos: Br, bromine
The word ‘ferrous’ gives iron its symbol, Fe.
‘Plumber’ and ‘plumbing’ come from the Latin word
for lead, Pb.
Hydrogen: mass number = atomic number + neutrons = 1 + 3 = 4
Chlorine: 17 + 20 = 37
Nickel: 28 + 30 = 58
Diagrammatic answer required.
1.5) Elements and the Periodic Table
a) the meaning of a "group" and a "period" on the Periodic Table.
b) Describe the connection (or trends) between groups, periods and electrons.
Science Focus 3 pg 41 - 43 will be very helpful.
a) Describe what an alloy is.
b) What are some of the common alloys in your alloy group?
c) Pick two of the common alloys in your alloy group and for each one complete the following:
i) What are its specific properties?
ii) What are the elements used to make it? And Why?
iii) What are the uses of this alloy?
Present the information to the class using PowerPoint on THURSDAY 6th March. There can only be a maximum of 10 slides and no more than ONE sentence on each slide. The focus must be on you as a speaker and the powerpoint is more to VISUALLY enhance your presentation. You may want to include a youtube clip. Finally you can use palm cards or ipad.
Extension Task 2. Choose an object that you use or that you would like to invent. Then investigate the best materials to make it. You will need to produce promotional material such as a TV advertisement, an animation or a pamphlet which shows the different materials used, where they are used on the object and the reasons you chose them.
Review and Check of your understanding
3. Complete Worksheet "2.6) Crossword" pg 24 from Science Focus 3 Homework Book. This has a couple of questions which you may not have covered but are excellent to learn - just google it!
Why are the elements of the Periodic Table arranged as shown?
The Core Learning Intentions are:
1. Describe some trends and patterns in the periodic table, especially metals and non-metals
2. Describe properties and uses of metals and non-metals
3. Outline the development of the Periodic Table
1. This is an interactive Periodic Table that is fun to use. Simply click on an element and lots of interesting and informative information will appear as well as videos on cool experiments conducted with that element.
2. Conduct the practical "Comparing Elements" on pg 46 of Science Focus 3 to learn that elements in a group have similar properties as well as identify the properties of metals and non-metals.
a) List the properties of metals
b) List the properties of non-metals
c) Identify where, on the Periodic Table, are metals AND non-metals found.
Extension Task; Find a diagram of the Reactivity Series of Metals that also shows how metals react with water, acids and oxygen.
3. Conduct one of the practicals "Metal Crystals" pg 53 OR "More Crystals" pg 54 in Science Focus 3 to grow silver crystals for fun!
4. Create a Video or PowerPoint or other presentation to show the interesting ways that metals and non-metals are used. Include a list of their common uses and provide images at least one common metals and one common non-metals. Make sure that the information that you have discovered is written up or printed off and pasted into your science book for future study.
5. In your laboratory groups, conduct research to identify and describe the properties of the following main groups of the Periodic Table - metals, metalloids, semi-metals, non-metals and noble gases.
Outline any issues that were found in completing this task. We will finish with a class discussion about these properties as well as students providing websites that they felt were very helpful.
Helpful Resources - ?????
6. It has been stated, many times, that the Periodic Table is the crowning achievement of scientific thought. When we look at it, it appears pretty plain however there is a brillance that can only be seen through a closer look at its construction. Watch this video and then answer the questions below:
a) How many elements were known in the 1860's?
b) How did Mendeleev first sort these elements?
c) Define atomic weight.
d) Mendeleev and other scientists noticed something important about the way elements react or their characteristics. What was that?
e) How did Mendeleev demonstrate the qualities of scientific thought?
f) How was Mendeleev able to help other scientists?
7. Consolidate your understanding by completing the Questions 1-16 0n p 59-60 of Science Focus 3